Montmorillonite,

a member of the smectite family, is a 2:1 clay, meaning that it has 2 tetrahedral sheets sandwiching a central octahedral sheet.  The particles are plate-shaped and extremely small with an average diameter of approximately 1 micrometer.  Montmorillonite’s colloidal nature lends it well to the transport of and enhanced bioavailability of nutrients. 

1st pie chart

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Book Review of and Excerpts from:
Secrets Of The Soil
New Age Solutions for Restoring Our Planet
© 1989 by Peter Tompkins & Christopher Bird
Authors of the Secret Life of Plants
Harper & Row Publishers, NY
Isbn 0-06-015817-4
Lib. Congr. S591.T64

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Montmorillonite tetrahedral molecular geometry 

 

 

We call it PANAK-ITE

[Tabular Summary of Laboratory Tests

Concerning Mineral Content of Montmorillonite

From Panaca, Nevada Quarry]

CAVEAT:This summary is not comprehensive. There are several more tests on file that corroborate the findings published herein, and fill-in the gaps. Also, please bear in mind that this presentation does not delve into the minerals per se (in the chemistry and geological sense of the word), found in the deposit, but merely lists the individual elements that make up minerals.   Neither are isotopes and ions separately identified herein.

Prepared by R. Joseph Collet JD

Updated March 2010

FOREWORD: Everybody likes, and has a right to know, which particular elements--and in what proportions--appear in our natural sedimentary deposit. Because of the unrelenting inquiries over years that have consumed a considerable amount of time relaying this same information piecemeal by e-mail, I have decided to publish a more thorough series of tables once and for all on the INTERNET, at our retail domain, www.montmorillonite.biz .

The main mineral (Montmorillonite), an edible clay, is correctly termed an alumino-silicate. This leafy structure forms the matrix that was stratified with humates, and adsorbed to its exterior, all the other minerals and elements present with their diverse properties. I have capitalized the names of the individual elements to distinguish them from names for rocks, actual minerals, certain compounds and other substances. The charts that follow depict an impressive array of 78 distinct elements identified to date that appear in many different combinations--chiefly with Oxygen. The essential chemistry evidently took place within a fresh water deposit, as the complete absence of the mineral compound NaCl, sodium chloride (salt) within the colloidal clay, attests. This lacustrine environment was the home for millennia to trillions and trillions of diatoms and other forms of plankton.   These tiny organisms, along with diverse animal and plant life, particularly the bio-friendly bacteria feeding upon the decomposing vegetable matter that washed into a caldera, or lake, chelated the elements during their metabolism of nutrients. The remarkable fulvic acid content of the deposit, as a bi-product of thriving pro-biotic bacteria, further evidences the organic processes that were in play. After this aquatic life expired, its skeletal remains and their precipitates, became the phyllosilicate building blocks of a living clay--enriched with trace elements including catalytic properties important for so many functions within higher life forms.

The lab test results disclosed in the charts that follow are representative of the available reports on file. Over time they have established the classical parameters of what the consumer or formulator may expect in his or her shipment from our quarry. The “min-max” indications are highlighted to designate more clearly the absolute ranges detected so far. All ratios are stated in parts per million for consistency. Simply divide the parts per million figures by 10,000 to arrive at an equivalent percentage for each element. The accuracy of the reports is presumed, and they have been reproduced conscientiously disclose what dedicated research has revealed.

The first table lists the major elements in descending order that are found in the PANAK-ITE deposit. Members of this group have unquestionable nutritive, structural or regulatory properties, or are simply amongst the most common in the earth’s crust; so, it is no surprise to find them here also, albeit not necessarily in their metallic, elemental, free or “pure” form. As aforesaid, more often than not, a given element has adhered to one or more others forming a mineral. Because the labs generating the reports were able to recognize each actual mineral quite readily, they automatically knew what portion of it was identified with its constituent elements.

The “Big 16”

These are most of the main elements that either formulators are interested in for their supplementary or remineralization properties, including certain “macro minerals” (that are readily detectable), and/or typically occur in many deposits. The laboratories consulted, both university and professional, are some of the most prestigious in the nation, stretching from Ohio to California. Note, however, that some of the earlier studies often show dramatically higher percentages of certain of these elements. Bear in mind that technology has improved substantially, and that different labs will conduct their individual tests subject to varying protocols and systems. It is further possible that some of the reports may contain typos such as an error in placing the decimal, or confusion between parts per million and a % figure, inter alia.

In any event it is easy to appreciate that PANAK-ITE is not a homogeneous material. The MEFAS report especially illustrates this, as four distinct readings were obtained from as many areas of the same, approximately, one-ounce sample. Since we have no data concerning from what precise coordinates the various samples were taken in former years, it is also possible that in the last ten years significantly different strata have been quarried, contrasted with what was the case 40 years ago. Nevertheless, it is comforting to know that in all subsequent test results (except for non-toxic Silicon), have come in substantially below what was established as a maximum long ago. Background colors used in highlighting different parts of each table, are for convenience in following data visually, and otherwise have no bearing on the presentation.

TABLE I.

*Asterisked figures represent various oxides in combination with mineralized individual elements.

Element

MEFAS,

INC.

Lake Forest, CA

JUN 2007

Spectrum

Analytic,

Inc.

Washington,

OH

JAN 2007

Servi-Tech

Labs.

 

Amarillo, TX

AUG 2006

ALS

Chemex

Sparks, NV

AUG 2004

Chemtech-Ford

SLC, UT

DEC 2002

Chemex

Labs, Inc.

Sparks, NV

FEB 1992

THE UNIV.

of Arizona

Tucson

OCT 1981

NEVADA

TESTING

LABS., LTD.

Las Vegas, NV

JUN 1974

Geo. W. Gooch Labs.,

Ltd. #

Los Angeles, CA

APR 1968

O

>550,000

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

*

n/a

n/a

n/a

Si

337,500

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

*650,000

250,000

260,000

230,000

Al

37,300

n/a

n/a

36,300

9,300

*67,200

93,000

91,000

88,000

Fe

14,250

8,400

52

12,200

8,700

13,200

16,000

16,000

32,000

Ca

12,500

15,700

4,407

18,800

20,000

*44,800

41,000

30,000

21,000

Mg

11,675

3,500

458

5,600

3,900

*11,100

8,300

9,200

6,000

K

9,700

*340

237

15,600

2,600

*16,200

48,000

81,000

84,000

Na

5,400

n/a

266

5,600

910

8,800

12,000

34,000

24,000

S

4,325

8,000

2,286

9,100

14,000

*9,210

16,000

n/a

*112,000

Ti

1,950

n/a

n/a

1,800

300

*3,100

2,300

2,800

7,800

Cu

1,075

<100

<1

9

<6

<15

<3

56

72

N

n/a

1,100

48

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

790

n/a

Mn

n/a

<100

<1

118

49

*150

150

350

350

Zn

n/a

<100

1

30

24

31

20

n/a

n/a

P

n/a

*200

24

290

270

*1200

n/a

*203

n/a

B

n/a

n/a

<1

n/a

10

35

7

<30

36

The table that follows is an attempt to summarize the data set forth above. Due to the often wide differences amongst the data derived from the forgoing table, an average computation is desirable. Note that the stated average is not that of the minimum and maximum, but that of all the figures from the corresponding line in the above table, excluding those numbers classified as oxides (which only appear for informational purposes).

TABLE II.

Min-Max and Ave. for Big 16 (in Table I)

 

Element

 

Minimum

ppm

Maximum

ppm

Average

ppm

 

Element

Minimum

ppm

Maximum

ppm

Average

ppm

Oxygen

550,000

550,000

550,000

Sulfur

2,286

16,000

8,951

Silicon

269,376

337,500

230,000

Titanium

300

7,800

2,825

Aluminum

9,300

93,000

70,980

Copper (Cu)

1

1,075

148

Iron (Fe)

52

32,000

13,422

Nitrogen

48

1,100

646

Calcium

4,407

41,000

20,425

Manganese

1

350

160

Magnesium

458

11,675

6,079

Zinc

1

31

21

Potassium (K)

340

84,000

30,185

Phosphorus

24

290

196

Sodium (Na)

266

24,000

11,372

Boron

1

36

20

In Table III that follows, it was decided to replace the three most modern tests with additional older ones from labs other than those appearing in Table I. The reason for this was simple.   The most modern tests only tested for the 16 so-listed; did not attempt to corroborate findings of obscure trace elements; certain older tests did.

Table III, therefore, deals with a broad bouquet of micro elements that appear in diminimous, or trace amounts. During the mid years of the exploitation of the quarry, there was a tremendous interest in identifying the total number of trace elements discoverable, as a basis for a marketing edge, and to develop patentable formulations for "use patents", and so forth. You will see carryovers of this mentality in various and sundry products trademarked in the preceding two decades that still use the quarried material as the main ingredient. An interesting assortment of products persists, ranging from human to animal supplementation with prefixes or actual names bearing 72, 74, 76 and now 78, as if to proclaim to the world, the widest possible variety of trace elements attributed to a single deposit.

This may well be the actual case. However, of the hundred-odd elements occurring in nature, only a handful in fact are well studied as to their medicinal, nutritional, and metabolic properties. The emphasis of the current operators is to educate concerning the properties of the elements that are well-studied, rather than spend inordinate amounts of money testing for yet one more trace element, heretofore unknown, to be present in the deposit. The individual trace elements also have unique catalytic properties, and perhaps someday another amazing function of a particular trace element contained in the Panaca deposit, will be written up yet.

In the meantime there is enough misinformation to combat that our chosen mission of necessity, must be an educational one. For example, there are certain other clays on the market that should be declassified as edible. There exist many false impressions minimizing the importance of chelation and colloidal substances.   Likewise, various myths and misstatements concerning so-called “ionic minerals” and “plant minerals”, rock dust, and so forth versus clays need to be overcome. Only recently have sedimentologists and mineralogists been able to draw the line between true Montmorillonite and Bentonite, using distinct scientific classifications.

TABLE III.a

The Trace Elements

(Refer tohttp://www.chelatedtraceminerals.com/chelated_trace_minerals.html)

All Figures Stated in Parts Per Million (PPM)

Element

Ford

Chemical

Laboratory,

Inc.

SLC, UT

JAN 1981

DIKKERS

Biochemical

Laboratory

Los Angeles, CA

1970s

Melchior T. Dikkers

PhD ScD

Technical   ReportTracemin 74

1980

ALS

Chemex

Sparks, NV

AUG 2004

Chemtech-Ford

SLC, UT

DEC 2002

Chemex

Labs, Inc.

Sparks, NV

FEB 1992

THE UNIV.

of Arizona

(Tucson)

OCT 1981

NEVADA

TESTING

LABS., LTD.

Las Vegas, NV

JUN 1974

Geo. W. Gooch Labs., Ltd. #

Los Angeles, CA

APR 1968

Ag

.30

*trace

4.00

<.50

<2.40

.15

n/a

n/a

n/a

As

.20

*1

55.00

57.00

92.00

58.40

73.00

n/a

n/a

Au

.05

n/a

.25

n/a

n/a

<.01

.68

n/a

trace

Ba

22.3

*250.00

170.00

470.00

57.00

515.00

390.00

n/a

trace

Be

.10

n/a

1.70

2.30

1.60

2.80

n/a

n/a

n/a

Bi

14.8

n/a

.85

<2.00

n/a

.60

n/a

n/a

n/a

Br

3.50

n/a

2.50

n/a

n/a

4.50

5.20

n/a

n/a

C

.19

*6,300.00

n/a

n/a

n/a

12,800.00

n/a

n/a

n/a

Cd

1.12

n/a

.20

<.50

<.47

.10

n/a

n/a

n/a

Ce

<.01

n/a

21.00

3.00

n/a

42.00

40.00

n/a

n/a

Cl

*6,100.00

*2,000.00

250.00

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Cs

<.01

n/a

21.00

n/a

n/a

n/a

183.00

n/a

n/a

Co

<.03

trace

4.80

n/a

3.00

3.00

4.80

25.00

n/a

Cr

4

100

25.00

36.00

23.00

150.00

70.00

260.00

280.00

Dy

n/a

n/a

2.50

n/a

n/a

1.00

4.00

n/a

n/a

Er

n/a

n/a

.80

n/a

n/a

<20.00

<2.00

n/a

n/a

Eu

n/a

n/a

2.00

n/a

n/a

<.50

.49

n/a

n/a

F

3.85

*200.00

8,000.00

n/a

n/a

*5,400.00

<1

n/a

n/a

Ga

.05

trace

3.00

n/a

n/a

12.00

25.00

33.00

94.00

Gd

n/a

n/a

9.00

n/a

n/a

<50.00

n/a

n/a

n/a

Ge

11.35

n/a

17.00

n/a

n/a

<5.00

25.00

n/a

50.00

H

.05

*1,936.00

n/a

n/a

n/a

1.00

n/a

n/a

n/a

Hf

n/a

n/a

.45

n/a

n/a

6.00

2.00

n/a

n/a

Hg

.17

n/a

.25

n/a

n/a

1.200

n/a

n/a

n/a

Ho

n/a

n/a

.25

n/a

n/a

1.00

1.10

n/a

20.00

In

.38

n/a

55.00

n/a

n/a

<1.00

n/a

n/a

n/a

I

.33

n/a

1.00

n/a

n/a

n/a

7.00

n/a

n/a

Ir

n/a

n/a

.25

n/a

n/a

n/a

.51

n/a

n/a

La

n/a

n/a

8.50

n/a

n/a

24.00

18.00

n/a

500.00

Li

1.44

*trace

2.50

n/a

20.00

27.00

n/a

n/a

n/a

Lu

n/a

n/a

.17

n/a

n/a

.30

.45

n/a

n/a

Mo

.25

*trace

34.00

24.00

29.00

<29.00

61.00

170.00

n/a

Nb

2.89

n/a

3.40

n/a

n/a

10.00

20.00

n/a

n/a

Nd

n/a

n/a

21.00

n/a

n/a

15.00

20.00

n/a

n/a

Ni

6.80

*trace

35.00

6.00

4.90

8.00

60.00

<40

26.00

Os

n/a

n/a

.25

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

*Asterisked figures represent various oxides in combination with mineralized individual elements.

# As analyzed by Loma Linda University (January, 1969) together with supplemental data from Loma Linda University (January, 1969).

TABLE III.b

The Trace Elements

(Refer tohttp://www.chelatedtraceminerals.com/chelated_trace_minerals.html)

All Figures Stated in Parts Per Million (PPM)

Element

Ford

Chemical

Laboratory,

Inc.

SLC, UT

JAN 1981

DIKKERS

Biochemical

Laboratory

Los Angeles, CA

1970s

Melchior T. Dikkers

PhD ScD

Technical   ReportTracemin 74

1980

ALS

Chemex

Sparks, NV

AUG 2004

Chemtech-Ford

SLC, UT

21 DEC 2002

Chemex

Labs, Inc.

Sparks, NV

FEB 1992

THE UNIV.

of Arizona

(Tucson)

OCT 1981

NEVADA

TESTING

LABS., LTD.

Las Vegas, NV

JUN 1974

Geo. W. Gooch Labs., Ltd. #

Los Angeles, CA

APR 1968

Pb

43.60

n/a

35.00

8.00

<6.60

6.00

14.00

n/a

trace

Pd

.74

n/a

1.50

n/a

n/a

<.01

n/a

n/a

n/a

Pr

n/a

n/a

2.50

n/a

n/a

<5.00

2.00

n/a

n/a

Pt

.03

n/a

.25

n/a

n/a

<.01

n/a

n/a

n/a

Rb

n/a

n/a

80.00

n/a

n/a

95.00

n/a

n/a

n/a

Re

n/a

n/a

.15

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Rh

.44

n/a

.60

n/a

n/a

<.01

<1.00

n/a

n/a

Ru

36.50

n/a

2.00

n/a

n/a

95.00

7.80

n/a

500.00

Sb

<11

n/a

8.50

11.00

<19.00

5.20

29.00

n/a

n/a

Sc

n/a

n/a

10.00

n/a

n/a

5.00

3.7

n/a

n/a

Se

1.30

n/a

6.00

n/a

16.00

6.40

4.10

n/a

n/a

Sm

n/a

n/a

10.00

n/a

n/a

2.00

3.50

n/a

40.00

Sn

.44

*trace

1.70

n/a

<47.00

<2.00

n/a

n/a

n/a

Sr

120.00

250

180.00

248.00

150.00

[1]414.00

240.00

37.00

350.00

Ta

.04

n/a

.50

n/a

n/a

<2.00

.50

n/a

n/a

Te

.10

n/a

.15

n/a

n/a

<.05

<1

n/a

n/a

Tb

n/a

n/a

.80

n/a

n/a

.60

.62

n/a

n/a

Th

.65

n/a

1.70

n/a

n/a

7.00

>100

n/a

n/a

Tl

n/a

n/a

1.70

n/a

<19.00

2.00

10.00

n/a

n/a

Tm

n/a

n/a

.25

n/a

n/a

<1.00

n/a

n/a

n/a

U

6.20

n/a

21.00

n/a

n/a

31.00

>100

n/a

n/a

V

8.00

*trace

80.00

119.00

87.00

119.00

n/a

190.00

190.00

W

1.50

n/a

8.50

10.00

n/a

<5.00

8.10

n/a

200.00

Y

1.20

n/a

5.10

n/a

n/a

15.00

n/a

n/a

n/a

Yb

n/a

n/a

.85

n/a

n/a

1.50

1.40

64.00

n/a

Zr

5.30

*200

.21

n/a

n/a

200.00

10.00

550.00

380.00

The import of Tables IIIa and IIIb is that they do corroborate and document what we have been saying all along, i.e., that the Panaca deposit does contain at least 78 of elements occurring in nature, most in trace amounts. How much is a trace amount? One definition could be anything under 1% (10,000 PPM). Hence the bulk of our elements are indeed trace elements. That is the good news because they are required only in tiny amounts. Some are essential and therefore, just as important as the macro elements, for without the synergy of the trace elements, the macro elements cannot perform their functions properly. [For further explanation, refer to www.montmorillonite.org]