a member of the smectite family is a 2:1 clay, meaning that it has 2 tetrahedral sheets sandwiching a central octahedral sheet.  The particles are plate-shaped and extremely small with an average diameter of approximately 1 micrometer.  Montmorillonite’s colloidal nature lends it well to the transport of nutrients and enhanced bioavailability of nutrients. 

1st pie chart


Book Review of and Excerpts from:
Secrets Of The Soil
New Age Solutions for Restoring Our Planet
© 1989 by Peter Tompkins & Christopher Bird
Authors of the Secret Life of Plants
Harper & Row Publishers, NY
Isbn 0-06-015817-4
Lib. Congr. S591.T64


Montmorillonite tetrahedral molecular geometry 



Selected Bibliography


The Biology of the Trace Elements –Their role in nutrition

by Karl H. Schütte MSc  PhD

 The sources cited, though they may seem somewhat dated (the most recent from 1962), have never been disputed or even rivaled by more current findings.  In fact the studies they represent accumulate the knowledge of centuries.  It is comforting to know that as corroborative tools to more modern studies, the truths we are only just re-discovering about the value of trace elements and minerals in nutrition, have been with us already for decades in support of the unfolding renaissance of health consciousness, human diet and veterinary and agricultural practices.

ALLCROFT, R., and UVAROV, O., ‘Parenteral Administration of Copper Compounds to Cattle with Special Reference to Copper Glycine (copper amino-acetate)’, Vet. Rec., 71, 797-810 (1959). 

ANDERSON, A.J., ‘The Role of Molybdenum in Plant Nutrition’,  Inorganic Nitrogen Metabolism, Ed., Mick Elroy, W.D., and Glass, B. (The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1956). 

ANDERSON, A.J., ‘Molybdenum Deficiencies in Legumes in Australia’, Soil Sci., 81, 173-182 (1956). 

ANDERSON, A.J. and UNDERWOOD, E.J., ‘Trace Element Deserts’, Scientific American200, 95-105  (1959). 

ANON., ‘Nutrition of Farm Animals’ (Iodine Inform. No. 48, 1956).

BACH, S.J., and Banga, I., Acta Un. Int. Cancer, 13, 463 (1957). 

BALFOUR, E., ‘9600 Miles in a Station Wagon. Some Findings by Agricultural Scientists’, Mother Earth8, 48 (1951). 

BARBER, R.S., BRAUDE, R., MITCHELL, K.G., ROOK, J.A.F., and ROWELL, J.G., ‘Further Studies on Antibiotic and Copper Supplements for Fattening Pigs’, Brit. J. Nutr., 11, 70-79 (1957).

BERGEL, F., Chemistry of Enzymes in Cancer (Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill. U.S.A., 1961). 

BEYERS, E., ‘Treatment of Mineral Deficiencies’, The Deciduous Fruit Grower (June 1954).

BEYERS, E., ‘Trace Element Nutrition in Deciduous Orchards and Vineyards’, Fmg. in  S. Afr., May (pp.13-16), June (pp. 33-38), (1956). 

BINGHAM, F.T. and GARBER, M.J., ‘Solubility and Availability of Micronutrients in Relation to Phosphorous Fertilization’, Soil Sci., Soc. Amer. Proc., 24, 209-213 (1960).

BINGHAM, F.T., MARTIN, J.P., and CHASTAIN, J.A., ‘Effects of the Phosphorous Fertilization of California Soils on Minor Element Nutrition of Citrus’, Soil Sci., 86, 24-31 (1958).

BOLLE-JONES, E.W., ‘Visual Symptoms of Mineral Deficiencies of Hevea brasiliensis’,  J.Rubb Res. Inst. Malaya14, Communic. 300 (1956). 

BORTELS, M., ‘Ergänzende Mitteilungen über die Wirkung von Molybdändüngern auf Lucerne im Feldversuch’, Zbl. Bakt.  II103. 129 (1941).

BRAUN, H. ‘Forderung der Pflanzengesundheit durch Standortsgerechten Anbau’, Vorträge der 16 Hochschultagung: Bonn 2-3 Oct. pp. 89-117, Landwirtschaftsverlag G.m.b.H. (1962)

BREMNER, K.C., and  KEATH, R.K. ‘The Effect of Copper Deficiency on Trichostrongylosis in Dairy Calves’, Aust. Vet., Jour., 35, 389-395 (1959). 

BROWN, J.C. and TIFFIN, L.O., ‘Properties of Chelates and Their Use In Crop Production’, Agri. Food Chem., 10, 192-195 (1962).

BURGER, O.J., and HAUGE, S.M., ‘Relation of Manganese to the Carotene and Vitamin Contents of Growing Crop Plants’, Soil Sci., 72, 303-313 (1951).

BURROWS, B., NIDEN, A.H. and BARCLAY, W.R., ‘Goitre and Myxoedema Due to Iodide Administration’, Ann. Intern. Med., 52, 858-870 (1960).

CALTON, W.E. and VAIL, J.W. ‘Micro-Nutrient Problems in Tanganyika’, VI. Int. Congr. Soil Sci. , Paris, 4 (5), 31-35 (1956).

CASKEY, C.D. and NORRIS, L.C., ‘Further Studies on the Roles on Manganese in Poultry Nutrition’, Poult. Sci., 17, 433 (1938). 

Chenoweth, M.B., “Chelation as a Mechanism of Pharmacological Action”, Pharmacol Reb., 8, 57-87 (1956). 

CORRÊA, R., ‘Carência de cobalto em bovines no Estado de São Paulo’, Rev. brasil Biol., 15, 309-13 (1955).

COTZIAS, G.C., ‘Manganese in Health and Disease’, Physiol. Reb., 38, 503-31 (1958).

CRUZ, W.O., ‘Hookworm Anemia, A Deficiency Disease’, Proc. IV Intern. Congr. Trop. Med. & Malaria, Washington D.C., 1045-52 (1948).

CUMINGS, J.N. Heavy Metals and the Brain (Blackwell, Oxford, (1959))

CUNNINGHAM, I.J. and HOGAN, K.G. ‘The Influence of Diet on the Copper and Molybdenum Contents of Hair, Hoof and Wool’, N.Z.J. Agric. Res., 1, 841-6 (1958). 

CURRAN, G.L., AZARNOFF, D.L., and BOLINGER, R.E., ‘The Effect of Cholesterol Synthesis Inhibition in Normocholestermic Young Men’, J. clin. Invest38 (ii), 1251-1261 (1959).

CUTHBERTSON, D.P., and MILLS, C.F., ‘The Significance of Trace Elements in Agriculture, With Particular Reference to Animals’, J. inst. Chem., 151-164 (March 1958)

DAVIS, G.K., ‘Metabolic Function and Practical Use of Cobalt in Nutrition’, Trace Elements, ed. LAMB, C.A., and Beattie, J.M. (Academic Press, New York and London, 1958).

DEIJS, W.B., BOSCH, S., and WIND, J., 88-99 ‘De minerale sammenstelling van wiedegras in verband met kopergebrek bij rundvee’ Verslag Centraal Instuut vor Landbouwkindig Onderzoek, Wagenongen, 88-99 (Report of the Central Institute, Wageningen, 1955). 

DORN, P. “Pflanzen als Anzeichen Fur Erzlagerstätten”, Der Biologe6, 11-13 (1937).

EGGLETON, W. G., ‘The Zinc Content of Epidermal Structures in Ber-beri’ Biochem J., 33 (i), 403-406 (1939).

EVANS, H. J., ‘Role of Molybdenum in Plant Nutrition’, Soil Sci81, 199-208 (1956).

FINCK, A., ‘Mangangehalt dörrfleckenkranker und gesunder Haferpflanzen sowie einiger anderer Feldpflanzen’, Phosphorsäure14, 91-103 (1954).

FRECKMANN, W., ‘Können wir die Frostschäden auf unseren Mooren vermindern oder gar verhüten?’ Mitt. d. Vereins zur Förderung der Moorkultur in Deutsch Reich, Heft 9/10 (1934).

GAUCH, G. H., and DUGGAR, W. M., ‘The  Role of Boron in the Translocation of Sucrose’, Plant Physiol., 28, 457-466 (1953).

GAUCH, G. H., and DUGGAR, W. M., ‘The Psysiological Action of Boron in Higher Plants: a Review and Interpretation’, Bull A-80 (Technical),  agric. Exp. Station, University of Maryland (1954).

GERICKE, S., ‘Die Versorgung von Pflanze und Tier mit Mikronährstoffen’, Phosphosäure17, 203-217 (1957).

GRASHUIS, J., ‘Soil, Plant and Animal’, Some Aspects of Three elements in Nature, Ed. SCHÜTTE, K.H. (Botany Dept., University of Cape Town, 1961).

GREAVES, J. E., and ANDERSON, A., ‘Influence of Soil and Variety on the Copper Content of Grains’, J. Nutr., 11, 111-117 (1936).

GREER, M. A., ‘The Significance of Naturally Occurring Anti-thyroid Compounds in the Production of Goitre in Man’, Borden’s Rev., 21 (v), 61-73 (1960).

HARTLEY, W. J., ‘Recent Advances in Selenium and Animal Health’, Proc. Of the Ruakura Farmers Conference Week, (N.A. Dept. of Agric,. Wellington, 1961).

HEWITT, E. J., Report of Visit to the Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo (1958).

HEWITT, E. J. and MCCREADY, C.C., ‘Relation of Nitrogen Supply to the Molybdenum Requirement of Tomato Plants Grown in Sand Culture’, Nature, 174, 186-7 (1954).

HOPKIRK, C.S. and PATTERSON, J. B. E., The Story of Cobalt Deficiency in Animal Health (The Mond Nickel Co. Ltd., London).

HOWELL, J. S., ‘The Effect of Copper Acetate in p-Diethylaminoazobenzene Carcinogenesis in the Rat’, Brit. J. Cancer12, 594-608 (1958).

JOSHI, N. V. and JOSHI, S. G., ‘Effect of Copper Sulphate on Rice in Bombay State’, Science & Culture (India), 18, 9607 (1952) (Chemical Abstracts. 47, 4538).

JUNGERMANN, K., ‘Beiträge zur Mikronahrstoff—Frage III’, Landw. Forsch16 Sonderheft, 93-111 (1962).

KEIDERLING, W., and SCHARPF, H., ‘Über die klinische Bedeutung der Serumkupfer—und Serumeisenbestimmung bei neoplastischen Krankheiten’, Münch. Med. Wschr., 95, 437-9 (1953).

KOEHLER, F. E., and ALBRECHT, W.A., ‘Biosynthesis of Amino Acids According to Soil Fertility, III,  Bioassays of Forage and Grain Fertilized with Trace Elements’, Plant & Soil4, 336-44 (1953).

LEE, H. J., ‘The Toxicity of Phalaris tuberosa to Sheep and Cattle, and the Preventive Role of Cobalt’, Proc. VII. Int Grassld. Congr.Wellington, N.Z., 387-96 (1956).

LEGON, C. D., ‘The Aetiological Significance of Geographical Variations in Cancer Mortality’, Brit. Med. J., July-Dec., 700-702 (1952).

LEHR, J. J., ‘Situation en ce que concerne les olgio-elements et la magnesia aux Pay-Bas’, Centre Internat. Des engrais chemiques, Viéme Assembleé Generale, Belgrade (1956).

LÖHNIS, M. P., ‘Manganese Toxicity in Field and market Garden Crops’, Plant and Soil3, 193-221 (1951).

LUCAS, R. E., ‘The Effect of Copper Fertilization on Carotene, Ascorbic Acid, Protein and Copper Contents of Plants Grown on Organic Soils’, Soil Sci., 65, 461-469 (1948).

LYON, C.B., and BEESON, C., “Influence of Toxic Concentrations of Micro-nutrient Elements in the Nutrient Medium on Vitamin Content of Turnips and Tomatoes’, Bot. Gaz109, 506-520 (1948).

MAWSON, C. A., and FISCHER, M. I., ‘The Occurrence of Zinc in the Human Prostrate Gland’, Canad. J Med. Sci., 30, 336-339 (1952).

MEYER, H. and ENGELBERRTZ, T., Über den Mangangehalt von Haaren schwarzbunter Niederungsrinder und seine Bieziehung zur Fruchtbarkeit’, Dtsch. Tierarzt. Wsch.67, 124 (1960).

MILLER, M.J., ELCOATE, P. V., and MAWSON, C. A., ‘The Effect of Dietary Zinc Deficiency on the Reproductive System of Male Rats’, Rev. Canad. De Biol., 13, No. 5 (1954).

MILLIKAN C.R., ‘Effect of Phosphates on the Development of Zinc Deficiency Symptpms in Flax’, J. Dept Agric. Victoria45, 273-278 (1947).

MITCHELL, R. L., ‘Trace Elements and Liming’, Scot. Agric., 34,139-143 (1955).

MONIER- WILLIAMS, G. W., Trace Elements in Food (Wiley, New York, 1950).

Mulder, D., ‘Les elements mineurs en culture fruitière’, 1o  Convegno Nazionale de Frutticoltura, Montana de Saint Vincent, pp. 188-198 (1953).

Mulder, E. G., ‘Effects of Fertilizers on the Chemical Composition of Herbage’, V Int. Grassld Congr., Netherlands, 6.1-6.7 (1949).

Mulder, E. G., ‘The Essentiality of Trace Elements for Microorganisms and the Microbiological Determination of these Elements’, Atti del VI Congresso Internat. Di Microbiologia, Roma6 (No. 18), 293-313 (1953).

Mulder, E. G., ‘Trace Element Conditions in Relation to Soil Conditions’, Pontif. Acad. Sci. Scripta Varia14, 215-232 (1954).

NASON, A., ‘The Metabolic Role of Vanadium and Molybdenum in Plants and Animals’, Trace Elements ( Symposium), Ed LAMB, C. H., BENTLEY, O. G., and BEATTIE, J. M., Academic Press, New York, 1958).

NEAL, W. M., amd AHMANN, F. C., “The Essentiality of Cobalt in Bovine Nutrition’, J. Dairy Sci., 20, 741 (1937).

NEHRING, K., and BORCHMANN, W., ‘Die Bedeutung der Mikronährstoffe auf dem Grünland’, Dtsch. Landwirtschaft, 538-541 (Nov. 1961).

NICHOLAS, D. J. D., ‘Role of Trace Elements in Nitrogen Metabolism of Plants, with Special Reference to micro-organisms’, J. Sci Fd. Agric. (Supp. Issue), 8, 15-25 (1957).

NICHOLAS, D.J. D., and NASON, A., ‘Role of Molybdenum as a Constituent of Nitrate Reductase from Soybean Leaves’, Plant Physiol., 30, 135-138 (1955).

NIESCHLAG, F., ‘Die Mikrodüngung im Kartolffelbau’ Kartoffelbau6, 4 (1955).

ORAM, P. A., ‘Boron Deficiency.  I.  The Importance of Boron in World Crops’, World Crops11, 248 (1959).

PERRY, H. M., SCHROEDER, H. A. and FREDRICKSON, A. F.,  J. lab. Clin. Med., 44, 907 (1955).

PETINOV, N. S. and MOLOTOVSKY, U. C. ‘Protective Processes of Heat Resistant Plants’, private communication, Plant Physio. Instit., Moscow Univ. (1962).

PLUMLEE, M. P., THRASHER, D. M., BEESON, W. M., ANDREWS, F. N., and PARKER, H.E., ‘The Effects of Manganese Deficiency upon the Growth, Development and Reproduction of Swine’, J. Animal Sci., 15, 352-367 (1956).

POLUKHINA, I. N., and MASLJANAJA, H.K., ‘ Influence of Nitrogen and Copper on the Anatomical Structure of Oat Stems in Relation to the Resistance of Oats on Peat Soils’ (English translation), Izv. Timit. Sol. Shokh Akad., No. 1, 205-208 (1961).

RADEMACHER, B., ‘Krankheidsbild un Verhalten der vershiedenen Kulturpflanzen auf urbarmachungskranken Böden’, Dtsch. Landw. Pr., 61, 581-593 (1934).

RADEMACHER, B., ‘Kupfermangelerscheinungen bei Forstgewächsen auf Heideböden’, Mitt. Forstwirt. Forstwiss., 335-344 (1940).

RAMASWAMY, M. S., ‘Copper in Ceylon Teas’, Tea Quart., 31, 76-80 (1960).

REED, H. S., ‘The Relation of Zinc to Seed Production’, J. Agric. Res., 64, 635-644 (1942).

REED, H. S., ‘A Physiological Study of Boron Deficiency in Plants’, Hilgardia17, 377-411 (1947).

ROACH, W. A., ‘Mineral Deficiencies in Agricultural and Horticultural Crops’, Ann. Report East Malling Research Station, 43-60 (1944).

ROACH, W. A., ‘Trace element Nutrition in the Union of South Africa and Calcarious Spain’, Arid Zone Research, Proc., Montpellier Symp. UNESCO (1955).

ROACH, W. A., ‘Trace Elements in Plants’, Trace Element Problems in Nature, edit. SCHÜTTE, K. H., 28-45.  Botany Department, University of Cape Town (1959).

ROGLER, J. C., PARKER, H.E., ANDREWS, F. N., and Carrick, C. W., ‘The Effects of an Iodine Deficiency on Embryo Development and Hatchability’, Poul. Sci., 38, 398-405 (1959).

RUBENSTEIN, A. H. LEVIN, N. W., and ELLIOTT, G.A. ‘Manganese Induced Hypoglycaemia’, Lancet, No. 7270, 1348-1351 (29 DEC 1962).

SCHARRER, K., SCHROPP, W., and SCHWAIBOLD, J., ‘Milchertrag and Milchjodspiegel von Milchkühen auf jodgedüngten Weiden’, Biederm. Zlb. Abt. B. 5, 676-700 (1933).

SCHMIED, E., ‘Spurenelementdüngung und Wasserhaushalt einiger Kulturpflanzen’, Öster. Bot. Zeitsch., 100, 552 (1953).

SCHÜTTE, K. H., ‘A Survey of Plant Minor Element Deficiencies in Africa’, Sols Africains3 (ii), 1-17 (1955).

SCHÜTTE, K. H., ‘Significance of Micro-nutrients’, Econ. Bot., 11, 146-159 (1957).

SCHÜTTE, K. H., ‘Micro-nutrient Deficiency and Wilting in the Radish’, Plant & Soil9, 186 (1957).

SCHÜTTE, K. H., ‘Micro-nutrient Deficiency and Transpiration in Tropaeolum majus L.’, J. esp. Bot., 10, 443 (1959).

SCHÜTTE, K. H., ‘Minor Element Deficiencies in Brazil’, Rev. Brasil. Biol., 19, 65-68 (1959).

SCHÜTTE, K. H., ‘Trace Element Deficiencies in Cape Vegetation’, J.S. Afr. Bot., 26, 45-49 (1960).

SCHÜTTE, K. H., AND SCHENDEL, H. E., ‘Effect of Trace Elements on Plant Protein Composition’, Proc. Nutr. Soc. S. A., 2, 47-50 (1961).

SCHWARTZ, K., AND FOLTZ, C. M., ‘Selenium as an Integral Part of Factor 3 against Dietary Necrotic Liver Degeneration’, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 79, 3392-3393 (1957).

SCOTT, D.A., and FISHER, A. M., ‘Insulin and Zinc Content of Bovine Pancreas’, J. clin. Invest., 17, 725 (1938).

SEELEGMANN, M., and von Baudissen. F. Graf, ‘Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Wirking der Spurenelemente Vanadium Kobalt und Kupfer, insbesondere auf das haematopoetische System bei parenteialer und oraler Verabreichung’, Zbl. Vet. Med., 1, 407-425 (1954).

SMITH, R. L., The Sequestration of Metals (Chapman & Hall, London, 1959).

SOMERS, I. I., SHIVE, J. W., ‘The Iron-Manganese Relation in Plant Metabolsim’, Plant Physiol., 17, 582-602 (1942).

STEINBERG, R. A., and JEFFRIES, R. N., ‘Effect of Micro-nutrient Deficiencies on Nicotine Formation in Tobacco by Water-culture’, Plant Physiol., 31, 377-382 (1956).

STINE. J. B., LOOS, H. and DAUME, H. E. ‘Copper and Cheddar Flavour’, Dairy World, Chicago32, 10-14 (1953). (Chemical Abstracts 48, 900).

STOCKS, P., AND DAVIS, R. I., ‘Epidemiological Evidence from Cemical and Spectographic Analysis that the Soil is Concerned in the Causation of Cancer’, Brit J. Cancer’14, 8-23 (1960).

STOOKEY, G. K. CRANE, D. B. and MUHLER, J. C. ‘Effect of Molybdenum on Fluoride Absorption’, Proc. Soc.  exp Biol. Med109, 580-583 (1962).

STOOKEY, G. K., ROBBINS, R. A., AND MUHLER, J. C., ‘Synergistic Effect of Molybdenum and Fluoride on Dental Caries in Rats’, Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med., 109, 702-705 (1962).

STOROZHEVA, M. N., ‘Influence de Cu et du B, sur l’augmentation du rendement des herbes fourragère et sur la résistance au froid des trèfles dan le Trans-ural du Nord’ (French translation), Daklady Akad. NaukS.S.S.R., 5 (vi), 1341-1342 (1954).

STOUT, P. R., MEAGHER, W. R., PEARSON, G. A., and JOHNSON, C. M., ‘Molybdenum Nutrition of Crop Plants, I.  The Influence of Phosphate and Sulphate on the Absorption of Molybdenum from Soils ad Solution Cultures’, Plant & Soils3, 51-87 (1951).

STRAUCH, D., ‘Minerlastoffmangel als Ursache der Vaginitis und Unfruchtbarkeit beim Rind’, Zbl vet. Med1, HF, 3 (1953).

STRUCKMEYER, B. E. and MACVICAR, R., ‘Relation of the Photoperiod to the Boron Requirement of Plants’, Bot. Gaz., 109, 237-249 (1948).

SWAN, J. M., ‘Mechanism of Alkaline Degradation of Cystine Residues in Proteins’, Nature179, 965 (1957).

TAKAMIYA, K., ‘Anti-tumour Activities of Copper Chelates’, Nature185, 190-191 (1960).

THACKER, E. J. AND BEESON, K. C., ‘Occurence of Mineral Deficiencies and Toxicities in Animals in the United States and Problems of their Detection’, Soil Sci., 85 (ii), 87-94 (1958).

TIMBERLAKE, C. F., ‘Complex Formation between Copper and Some Organic Acids, Phenols and Phenolic Acids Occurring in Fruit’, J. Chem. Soc., 2795-2798 (1959).

TRUMMERT, W. AND BOEHM, G., ‘Über das Spurenelement Vanadium und seine hämopoetische Wirkung’, Blut., 3, 211-16 (1957).

UNDERWOOD, E. J., Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition (Academic Press, New York and London, 1956).

UNDERWOOD, E. J., Trace Elements in Animals, Trace Elements (Symposium), Ed. LAMB, C. A., Bentley, O. G., and Beattie, J. M. (Academic Press, New York and London, 1958).

VAN DER GRIFT, J., Het Kopergehalte van Lever en Bloedserum bij het Fries-Hollands Rund (Straatsdruckerij, ‘s Gravenhage, 1955).

VAN KOETSVELD, E. E., ‘The manganese and copper contents of hair as an indication of the feeding condition of cattle regarding manganese and copper.’ Tijdschr. Dieregeneesk.  83, 229, (1958).

VLASIUK, P. A., ‘Influence of Trace and Ultra Trace Elements on the Quality of Agricultural Products’ (English translation), Dokl. Vses. Akad. Sels’sk. Nauk., t. 24, 7, 3-7 (1959).

VOISIN, A., Soil, Grass and Cancer (Crosby Lockwood, London, 1959).

VON BRONSART, H., ‘Erhödung des Vitamin-C-Gehaltes durch Mangandüngung’, Z. PflErnähr. Düng. 51 (96), 153-157 (1950).

WALLACE, A., A Decade of Synthetic Chelating Agents in Inorganic Plant Nutrition ( A Wallace, 2278 Parnell Ave., Los Angeles 64, Calif., 1962).

WALLACE, T., The diagnosis of Mineral Deficiencies in Plants by Visual Symptoms (H.M.S.O., London, 1951).

WARREN, H. V., DULAVAULT, R. E., and FORTESCUE, J, A. C. ‘Sampling in Biogeochemistry’, Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 66, 229-238 (1955).

WEAR, J. I., ‘Effect of Soil pH and Calcium on the Uptake of Zinc by Plants’, Soil Sci., 81, 311-315 (1956).

WESPI, H. J. AND EGGENBERGER, . J., SCHWEIZ MED. WSCHR. 78, 56 (1948). Ref in ‘Relation of Endemic Goitre to Thyroid Carcinoma and Thyrotoxicosis.’ Nutr. Rev. 19, 166-167 (1961).

WILLIAMS, C. H., ‘Mineral elements and Parasitic Disease in Plants’, Some Aspects of Trace Elements in Nature, Ed. SCHÜTTE, K. H. (Botany Dept., University of Cape Town, 1961).

ZIMMERMAN, P. W., AND HITCHCOCK, A.E., ‘Susceptibility of Plants to Hydrofluoric Acid and Sulphur Dioxide Gases’, Contrib. from Boyce Thompson Instit., 18, 263-279 (1955).

 Abstract: The Biology of the Trace Elements –Their role in nutrition